Convex combinations of low eigenvalues, Fraenkel asymmetries and attainable sets∗
1 Dipartimento di Matematica G. Peano, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Carlo Alberto, 10–10123 Torino, Italy.
2 Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, via Bonomea, 265–34136 Trieste, Italy.
3 Dipartimento di Scienze Matematiche G.L. Lagrange, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24–10129 Torino, Italy.
Received: 27 November 2015
Revised: 5 April 2016
Accepted: 30 March 2016
We consider the problem of minimizing convex combinations of the first two eigenvalues of the Dirichlet–Laplacian among open sets of RN of fixed measure. We show that, by purely elementary arguments, based on the minimality condition, it is possible to obtain informations on the geometry of the minimizers of convex combinations: we study, in particular, when these minimizers are no longer convex, and the optimality of balls. As an application of our results we study the boundary of the attainable set for the Dirichlet spectrum. Our techniques involve symmetry results à la Serrin, explicit constants in quantitative inequalities, as well as a purely geometrical problem: the minimization of the Fraenkel 2-asymmetry among convex sets of fixed measure.
Mathematics Subject Classification: 47A75 / 49G05 / 49Q10 / 49R05
Key words: Eigenvalues / Dirichlet Laplacian / Fraenkel asymmetry / attainable set
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